Single enzyme RT-PCR of full-length ribosomal RNA

The ribosome is a two-subunit, macromolecular machine composed of RNA and proteins that carries out the polymerization of α-amino acids into polypeptides. Efforts to engineer ribosomal RNA (rRNA) deepen our understanding of molecular translation and supply alternatives to develop the chemistry of life by creating ribosomes with altered properties. Towards these efforts, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of all the 16S and 23S rRNAs, which make up the 30S small subunit and 50S massive subunit, respectively, is vital for isolating desired phenotypes.

Nonetheless, reverse transcription of rRNA is difficult resulting from intensive secondary construction and post-transcriptional modifications. One key problem is that present business kits for RT-PCR depend on reverse transcriptases that lack the acute thermostability and processivity discovered in lots of business DNA polymerases, which can lead to subpar efficiency on difficult templates.

Right here, we develop strategies using an artificial thermostable reverse transcriptase (RTX) to allow and optimize RT-PCR of the whole Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNAs. We additionally characterize the error charge of RTX when traversing the varied post-transcriptional modifications of the 23S rRNA. We anticipate that this work will facilitate efforts to check and characterize many naturally occurring lengthy RNAs and to engineer the interpretation equipment for artificial biology.

Usefulness of Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA Quantification by Droplet-based Digital PCR to Monitor Remedy In opposition to COVID-19 in a B-cell Lymphoma Affected person

We report the case of an HIV-1-infected affected person, handled with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for a B-cell lymphoma beforehand handled by autologous stem cell transplant. He suffered from continual COVID19 and we monitored by plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA by extremely delicate droplet-based digital PCR know-how (ddPCR). Below tocilizumab remedy and regardless of a primary scientific enchancment biologically related to reducing inflammatory markers, a slight improve of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia quantified by ddPCR was highlighted, confirming the absence of viral efficacy of this remedy and predicting the following noticed deterioration.

As anticipated, his full restoration, lastly achieved after COVID-19 convalescent plasmatherapy, strictly paralleled plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. With these outcomes, we confirmed the curiosity of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia monitoring by ddPCR in COVID-19 sufferers, significantly throughout remedy, and firstly confirmed that this new and particular biomarker may very well be useful to pick out eligible affected person for anti-IL6 receptors remedy contemplating the variable ranges of efficacy lately noticed with such remedy.

Single enzyme RT-PCR of full-length ribosomal RNA

The identification and willpower of toxin genes of Vibrio strains inflicting hemorrhagic illness on purple drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) utilizing PCR

Information have been collected from 30 strains of Vibrio and sampled on totally different organs (mind, hemorrhagic web site and digestive tract) of Sciaenops ocellatus an infection. The outcomes confirmed that the nucleotide sequences 16S rRNA area are extremely just like these of V. alginolyticus, V. azureus, V. fluvialis, V. natriengens and V. orientalis, which have been revealed on Genbank and different, starting from 98.05 to 100%.

The digestive tract has the most typical Vibrio strains (V. alginolyticus [16] V. azureus [7] and V. fluvialis). Thereout, 25 of 30 strains of Vibrio contained 1 to three toxin genes, besides V. parahaemolyticus. Six parameters have been used to measure the DNA polymorphism of 33 homologous DNA sequences on this Vibrio micro organism inhabitants. The outcomes indicated that variety of separate polymorphic websites (S), complete variety of mutant websites (Eta), variety of haplotype (h), haplotype variety (Hd), common variety of nucleotide variations (okay), nucleotide variety (Pi) have been 98 (S), 103 (Eta), 9 (h), 0.887 ± 0.032 (Hd), 25.789 (okay) and 17.980 × 10-3 ± 0.003 (Pi), respectively (P < 0,05). The G + C content material above 1434 websites positions of nucleotide sequences accounted for 0.542.

The phylogenetic tree confirmed that these strains are divided into six teams. As noticed, the looks of remoted Vibrio on Three organs of fish (S. ocellatus) hemorrhagic are V. azureus (27,67%), V. alginolyticus (50%), V. orientalis (6,67%) and V. fluvialis (16,67%). Via this outcome, we discovered that the range of Vibrio species that appeared on the purple drum was used within the 16S rRNA area and the presence of toxin genes in these Vibrio species.

Comparability of digital PCR and quantitative PCR with numerous SARS-CoV-2 primer-probe units

The World Well being Group (WHO) has declared the Coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) as a global well being emergency. Present diagnostic exams are based mostly on the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain response (RT-qPCR) technique, which is the gold customary take a look at that includes the amplification of viral RNA. Nonetheless, the RT-qPCR assay has limitations when it comes to sensitivity and quantification.

On this research, we examined each qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect low quantities of viral RNA. The cycle threshold (CT) of the viral RNA by RT-PCR considerably assorted based on the sequences of the primer and probe units with in vitro transcript (IVT) RNA or viral RNA as templates, whereas the copy variety of the viral RNA by ddPCR was successfully quantified with IVT RNA, cultured viral RNA, and RNA from scientific samples.

Moreover, the scientific samples have been assayed by way of each strategies, and the sensitivity of the ddPCR was decided to be equal to or greater than that of the RT-qPCR. Nonetheless, the ddPCR assay is extra appropriate for figuring out the copy variety of reference supplies.

Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit

PDPS-AR064 1 unit Ask for price
Description: Creative Biogene Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit is used for the detection of monkeypox Virus in serum or lesion exudate samples by using real time PCR systems. Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA, zoonotic virus and a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. It is one of the human orthopoxviruses that includes variola (VARV), cowpox (CPX), and vaccinia (VACV) viruses. The kit contains a specific ready-to-use system for the detection of the monkeypox Virus. Fluorescence is emitted and measured by the real time systems' optical unit during the PCR.

Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit

YJC70115NW-25T 25 tests/kit Ask for price
Description: The Bioperfectus Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit is an in vitro diagnostic test, based on real-time PCR technology, for the detection of DNA from the Monkeypox virus. Specimens can be obtained from human serum, lesion exudate samples and scab. BSL-2 facilities with standard BSL-2 work practices may be used for the test of t he Monkeypox virus.

Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit

ZD-0076-01 25 tests/kit Ask for price
Description: Monkeypox virus is the virus that causes the disease monkeypox in both humans and animals. Monkeypox virus is an Orthopoxvirus, a genus of the family Poxviridae that contains other viral species that target mammals. The virus is mainly found in tropical rainforest regions of central and West Africa. The primary route of infection is thought to be contact with the infected animals or their bodily fluids. The genome is not segmented and contains a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA, 185000 nucleotides long. The Monkeypox Virus real time PCR Kit contains a specific ready-to-use system for the detection of the Monkeypox Virusthrough polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the real-time PCR system. The master contains reagents and enzymes for the specific amplification of the Monkeypox Virus DNA. Fluorescence is emitted and measured by the real time systems ́ optical unit during the PCR. The detection of amplified Monkeypox Virus DNA fragment is performed in fluorimeter channel 530nm with the fluorescent quencher BHQ1. DNA extraction buffer is available in the kit and serum or lesion exudate samples are used for the extraction of the DNA. In addition, the kit contains a system to identify possible PCR inhibition by measuring the 560nm fluorescence of the internal control (IC). An external positive control defined as 1×10^7 copies/ml is supplied which allow the determination of the gene load.

Monkeypox Virus Real Time PCR Kit

ZD-0076-02 25 tests/kit Ask for price
Description: Monkeypox virus is the virus that causes the disease monkeypox in both humans and animals. Monkeypox virus is an Orthopoxvirus, a genus of the family Poxviridae that contains other viral species that target mammals. The virus is mainly found in tropical rainforest regions of central and West Africa. The primary route of infection is thought to be contact with the infected animals or their bodily fluids.The genome is not segmented and contains a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA, 185000 nucleotides long.The Monkeypox Virus real time PCR Kit contains a specific ready-to-use system for the detection of the Monkeypox Virusthrough polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the real-time PCR system. The master contains reagents and enzymes for the specific amplification of theMonkeypox VirusDNA. Fluorescence is emitted and measured by the real time systems ́ optical unit during the PCR. The detection of amplified Monkeypox Virus DNA fragment is performed in fluorimeter channelFAM with the fluorescent quencher BHQ1. DNA extraction buffer is available in the kit and serum or lesion exudate samples are used for the extraction of the DNA. In addition, the kit contains a system to identify possible PCR inhibition by measuring the HEX/VIC/JOE fluorescence of the internal control (IC). An external positive control defined as 1×107copies/ml is supplied which allow the determination of the gene load.

ViPrimePLUS Human Measles Virus RT-qPCR Kit, 150rxns

QM5034 each Ask for price

Measles Virus IgG

DEMEAG0330 96
EUR 92

Measles Virus IgM

DEMEAM0330 96
EUR 92

Measles virus lysate

NAT41576-100 0.1
EUR 512.85
Description: Purified Measles virus lysate.

Measles virus protein

30-1308 1 mg
EUR 289.2
Description: Purified native Measles virus protein

Measles Virus Antigen

PR-BA102-L 1mg
EUR 961.8
Description: native, Vero cell culture

Measles Virus Antigen

PR-BA102-S 250µg
EUR 321
Description: native, Vero cell culture

Virus Measles Virus (MeV) Protein

abx670263-1ml 1 ml
EUR 543.6

Measles Virus Antibody

abx023654-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1053.6

Measles Virus Antibody

abx023655-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1053.6

Measles Virus Antibody

abx023656-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1053.6

Measles Virus Antibody

abx023657-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1053.6

QPCR Kit RNA Human Measles virus

MOL8028 EACH
EUR 1045.79

Monkey measles virus,MV ELISA Kit

YX-SL0040Mk - Ask for price

Mouse anti Measles virus (6012)

MAB12340-100 0.1
EUR 275.56
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6012)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6012)

MAB12340-500 0.5
EUR 691.46
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6012)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6014)

MAB12341-100 0.1
EUR 275.56
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6014)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6014)

MAB12341-500 0.5
EUR 691.46
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6014)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6015)

MAB12342-100 0.1
EUR 275.56
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6015)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6015)

MAB12342-500 0.5
EUR 691.46
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6015)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6017)

MAB12343-100 0.1
EUR 344.45
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6017)

Mouse anti Measles virus (6017)

MAB12343-500 0.5
EUR 691.46
Description: Mouse monoclonal antibody specific for Measles Virus (clone 6017)

Measles Virus Antigen (Premium)

PR-BA102-S-L 1mg
EUR 1365.6
Description: native, Vero cell culture

Measles Virus Antigen (Premium)

PR-BA102-S-S 250µg
EUR 455.1
Description: native, Vero cell culture

Recombinant Measles Virus (399-525)

7-07852 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus (399-525)

7-07853 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus (399-525)

7-07854 1000µg Ask for price

Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N)

1-CSB-BP361386MCQ
  • EUR 1008.00
  • EUR 398.40
  • EUR 2604.00
  • EUR 1362.00
  • EUR 1894.80
  • EUR 564.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein(N),partial expressed in Baculovirus

Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N)

1-CSB-BP494341MQM
  • EUR 1008.00
  • EUR 398.40
  • EUR 2604.00
  • EUR 1362.00
  • EUR 1894.80
  • EUR 564.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein(N),partial expressed in Baculovirus

Rubeola (Measles) Virus Antibody

abx022211-100ug 100 ug
EUR 693.6

Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N)

1-CSB-EP494341MQM
  • EUR 733.20
  • EUR 370.80
  • EUR 2192.40
  • EUR 1126.80
  • EUR 1461.60
  • EUR 476.40
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein(N),partial expressed in E.coli

Human Measles Virus Antibody ELISA Kit

abx053672-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein (HEK293)

REC31796-100 0.1
EUR 454.17
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein NP, produced in HEK293 cells. Protein was purified by fractionation of transiently transfected cells.

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein (HEK293)

REC31796-500 0.5
EUR 1592.14
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein NP, produced in HEK293 cells. Protein was purified by fractionation of transiently transfected cells.

Rubeola (measles) Virus NucleoProtein

abx069934-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1212

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

10-001605F 50 ug
EUR 418.8
Description: Mouse monoclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

20-000221 500 ul
EUR 406.8
Description: Goat polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

20-000222 100 ug
EUR 208.8
Description: Goat polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody

Recombinant Measles Virus Nucleocapsid

7-07846 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Nucleocapsid

7-07847 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Nucleocapsid

7-07848 1000µg Ask for price

Human Measles Virus Antibody IgM ELISA Kit

abx052551-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Human Measles Virus IgG (MV IgG) ELISA Kit

abx364849-96tests 96 tests
EUR 651.6

Human Measles Virus IgM (MV IgM) ELISA Kit

abx364863-96tests 96 tests
EUR 651.6

OPEF01328-1ML - Measles Virus Antigen

OPEF01328-1ML 1ml
EUR 556

OPEF01339-1ML - Measles Virus Antigen

OPEF01339-1ML 1ml
EUR 321

OAEF00442-1MG - Measles Virus Antibody

OAEF00442-1MG 1mg
EUR 471

OAEF00443-1MG - Measles Virus Antibody

OAEF00443-1MG 1mg
EUR 471

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgG) ELISA Kit

CSB-E05000h-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 198
Description: Qualitative indirect ELISA kit for measuring Human measles virus (MV) antibody (IgG) in samples from serum. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgG) ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E05000h
  • EUR 867.60
  • EUR 5859.60
  • EUR 3109.20
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Qualitative indirect ELISA kit for measuring Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgG) in samples from serum. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgM) ELISA Kit

CSB-E05001h-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 198
Description: Qualitative indirect ELISA kit for measuring Human measles virus (MV) antibody (IgM) in samples from serum. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgM) ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E05001h
  • EUR 867.60
  • EUR 5859.60
  • EUR 3109.20
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Qualitative indirect ELISA kit for measuring Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgM) in samples from serum. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgM) Elisa Kit

EK714240 96 Wells
EUR 0.44

Human measles virus(MV) antibody (IgG) Elisa Kit

EK714241 96 Wells
EUR 0.44

Measles Virus Antigen (Partially purified)

DAGA-497 1ml
EUR 676.8

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody (FITC)

61-001603 50 ug
EUR 457.2
Description: Mouse monoclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody (FITC)

Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody (FITC)

60-00222-3F 50 ug
EUR 159.6
Description: Goat polyclonal Measles Virus Nucleoprotein antibody (FITC)

Measles virus Hemagglutinin glycoprotein (H)

1-CSB-EP357366MCQ1
  • EUR 733.20
  • EUR 370.80
  • EUR 2192.40
  • EUR 1126.80
  • EUR 1461.60
  • EUR 476.40
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Measles virus Hemagglutinin glycoprotein(H),partial expressed in E.coli

Mouse antibody for Measles virus (Rubeola)

6015 100 ug
EUR 386.26
Description: This is purified Mouse monoclonal antibody against Measles virus (Rubeola) for WB, ELISA.

Mouse antibody for Measles virus (Rubeola)

6017 100 ug
EUR 386.26
Description: This is purified Mouse monoclonal antibody against Measles virus (Rubeola) for WB, ELISA.

Human measles virus IgG,MV IgG ELISA Kit 定性

SL3034Hu 96 Tests
EUR 468

MV (Measles Virus Antibody IgG) ELISA test

142 96T/Box Ask for price
Description: ELISA based test for quantitative detection of MV (Measles Virus Antibody IgG)

MV (Measles Virus Antibody IgM) ELISA test

143 96T/Box Ask for price
Description: ELISA based test for quantitative detection of MV (Measles Virus Antibody IgM)

OOSA09767-1ML - NATIVE MEASLES VIRUS Antigen

OOSA09767-1ML 1ml
EUR 329

Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149) Protein

20-abx260296
  • EUR 1062.00
  • EUR 410.40
  • EUR 1930.80
  • 0.5 mg
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg

Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183) Protein

20-abx260297
  • EUR 1062.00
  • EUR 410.40
  • EUR 1930.80
  • 0.5 mg
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg

Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N) ,partial

RPC25937-100ug 100ug
EUR 889.9

Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N) ,partial

RPC25937-1mg 1mg
EUR 3237

Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N) ,partial

RPC25937-20ug 20ug
EUR 448.1

Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N) ,partial

RPC26326-100ug 100ug
EUR 1463

Recombinant Measles virus Nucleoprotein (N) ,partial

RPC26326-20ug 20ug
EUR 633.6

Human Measles virus IgG antibody (MV-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62481HU-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 325
Description: Human (Homo sapiens)

Human Measles virus IgG antibody (MV-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62481HU-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 610
Description: Human (Homo sapiens)

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149)

7-07837 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149)

7-07838 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149)

7-07839 1000µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183)

7-07843 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183)

7-07844 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183)

7-07845 1000µg Ask for price

Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149) (Recombinant)

22060553-1 100 µg
EUR 264.47

Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183) (Recombinant)

22060555-1 100 µg
EUR 264.47

Recombinant Measles virus Fusion glycoprotein F0 (F)

RPC27441-100ug 100ug
EUR 3708.5

Recombinant Measles virus Fusion glycoprotein F0 (F)

RPC27441-20ug 20ug
EUR 2380

Recombinant Measles Virus Fusion Mosaic (106-114,519-550)

7-07855 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Fusion Mosaic (106-114,519-550)

7-07856 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Fusion Mosaic (106-114,519-550)

7-07857 1000µg Ask for price

Recombinant (E.Coli) Measles Virus Large Polymerase (58-149)

RP-651 100 ug
EUR 343.2

Recombinant (E.Coli) Measles Virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183)

RP-653 100 ug
EUR 343.2

Measles virus (Nucleoprotein) rabbit polyclonal antibody, Serum

AP55070SU-N 200 µl Ask for price

Measles virus mouse monoclonal antibody, clone 166, Purified

BM3204 0.1 mg Ask for price

GWB-636184-1ML - Measles (Rubeola) Virus Antigen

GWB-636184-1ML 1ml
EUR 214

Recombinant Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Mosaic (1-30,115-150,379-410)

7-07849 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Mosaic (1-30,115-150,379-410)

7-07850 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Mosaic (1-30,115-150,379-410)

7-07851 1000µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Non-Structural C-Protein (1-51)

7-07840 100µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Non-Structural C-Protein (1-51)

7-07841 500µg Ask for price

Recombinant Measles Virus Non-Structural C-Protein (1-51)

7-07842 1000µg Ask for price

Measles virus (Matrix protein) rabbit polyclonal antibody, Purified

AP55071PU-N 100 µg Ask for price

Recombinant (E.Coli) purified Measles virus Large Polymerase (2059-2183)

RP-1612 100 ug
EUR 416.4

Recombinant (E.Coli) purified Measles virus Large Polymerase (58-149)

RP-1613 100 ug
EUR 416.4

Measles (Rubeola) Virus (Edmonston) proteins/antigen extract

MESL15-N-500 500 ul
EUR 416.4

Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Mosaic (1-30,115-150,379-410) peptide (>95%, no tag)

RP-655-SP 100 ug
EUR 343.2

Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Mosaic (1-30,115-150,379-410) peptide (>95%, no tag)

RP-655-SP-500 500 ug
EUR 1155.6

RealScreen Measles IgG ELISA Kit

EL024-096 96T
EUR 999.6

RealScreen Measles IgM ELISA Kit

EL025-096 96T
EUR 999.6

Human Lung Cancer PCR Primer Library

HLUCPL-I 1 set
EUR 657.6

Human Schwann Cell PCR Primer Library

HSCH-I 1 set
EUR 657.6

These findings recommend that the qPCR assay with the ddPCR outlined reference supplies may very well be used as a extremely delicate and appropriate diagnostic technique for viral RNA detection.

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